As early as two weeks after leaving her husband, Foss noticed disturbing signs in Gould, alluding to unusual behaviour that was more than "just neurotic". The 1955 interpretation is highly energetic and often frenetic; the later is slower and more deliberate[86][87]—Gould wanted to treat the aria and its 30 variations as a cohesive whole. Gould's concerts featured Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven. [4] Gould, for his part, is said to have thoroughly enjoyed the proceedings, especially the fact that he had provoked some booing from the audience; he held that some controversy was better than quiet complacence with the performance. [51] He also disliked social functions. Gould also recorded works by Brahms, Mozart, and many other prominent piano composers (with the notable exception of Frédéric Chopin), though he was outspoken in his criticism of the Romantic era as a whole. He was progressive in many ways, promulgating the atonal composers of the early 20th century, and anticipating, through his deep involvement with the recording process, the vast changes that technology would have on the production and distribution of music. [10] She would later teach him the piano. The service was attended by over 3,000 people, and was broadcast on the CBC. It was, I think, his last performance in Toronto, and it was a staggering impression. All three use a radiophonic electronic-music technique that Gould called "contrapuntal radio", in which several people are heard speaking at once—much like the voices in a fugue—manipulated through overdubbing and editing. Gould worked from a young age with Guerrero on a technique known as finger-tapping: a method of training the fingers to act more independently from the arm. The family's surname was changed to Gould informally around 1939 to avoid being mistaken for Jewish, given the prevailing anti-Semitism of pre-war Toronto and the Jewish associations of the Gold surname. Philosopher Mark Kingwell writes that "his influence is made inescapable. Gould's mother would urge the young Gould to sit up straight at the keyboard. [4][clarification needed] Bernstein's later recording of the concerto, with Krystian Zimerman, runs to 54 minutes (although the first movement, at 24:32 vs. 25:37, and third movement, at 13:00 vs. 13:34, are considerably shorter), and other recordings are of comparable length. His unique pianistic method, insight into the architecture of compositions, and relatively free interpretation of scores created performances and recordings that were revelatory to many listeners while being highly objectionable to others. [18], Gould developed a technique that enabled him to choose a very fast tempo while retaining the "separateness" and clarity of each note. [99], Gould made numerous television and radio programs for CBC Television and CBC Radio. Bernstein, in urging the musicians not to give up, referred to Gould as a "great man"[4] and held that his ideas should be taken seriously. Price New from Used from Audio CD, Import, September 3, 2007 "Please retry" $13.67 . 2 — Glenn Gould Occupation: Pianist/Producer/Composer Crime: Suspicion of Vagrancy. [fn 5] This incident is almost certainly related to the adjustable-height chair his father made shortly thereafter. He is also heard practising other parts of the Goldbergs. [108] François Girard's Genie Award winning 1993 film, Thirty Two Short Films About Glenn Gould includes documentary interviews with people who knew him, dramatizations of scenes from Gould's life, and fanciful segments including an animation set to music. 73, popularly known as the “Emperor”. [36] His concerts featured Bach, Beethoven, and the serial music of Schoenberg and Berg, which had been suppressed in the Soviet Union during the era of Socialist Realism. He invariably insisted that it had to be extremely warm. He both was and was not a man of his time. He enjoyed a jazz concert with his friends as a youth, mentioned jazz in his writings, and once criticized the Beatles for "bad voice leading"[fn 18]—while praising Petula Clark and Barbra Streisand. The answer is, of course, sometimes one, sometimes the other, depending on the people involved. Glenn Gould in Concert: Salzburg 1959 (Bach); Moscow 1957 (Bach); Lenningrad 1957 (Bach, Beethoven) Glenn Gould (Artist) Format: Audio CD 4.3 out of 5 stars 14 ratings [8] Gould was also criticized for taking excessive liberties with score markings. By 4 October, there was evidence of brain damage, and Gould's father decided that his son should be taken off life support. You must have that immediacy of response, that control over fine definitions of things."[27]. But, but this time the discrepancies between our views are so great that I feel I must make this small disclaimer. [66], Whether Gould's behaviour fell within the autism spectrum has been the subject of debate. "[55] In a letter to the cellist Virginia Katims of 20 January 1973, Gould said he had been vegetarian for about ten years. [85] Gould became closely associated with the piece, playing it in full or in part at many recitals. [61] In his later years he claimed to be vegetarian, but his private notepads reveal that he ate chicken, Dover sole, roast beef and veal. For his only recording at the organ, he recorded about half of The Art of Fugue, which was also released posthumously on piano. Four years after his final public appearance Gould, in an interview with journalist John McClure, explained and vindicated his decision to drop out of the concert scene: “Except for a few octogenarians, I’m really the first person who has, short of having a nervous collapse or something, given up the stage. The performer had to make creative choices. [24] Gould could play from memory not just a vast repertoire of piano music, but also a wide range of orchestral and operatic transcriptions. [fn 19]. He was extremely critical of Chopin. Although there was some controversy at Columbia about the appropriateness of this "debut" piece, the record received phenomenal praise and was among the best-selling classical music albums of its era. The concert became famous because of Bernstein's remarks from the podiumprior to the concerto, with which he disassociated himself from the interpretation that was to come. Thus, the act of musical composition, to Gould, did not entirely end with the original score. 67, was deemed an "outright fiasco". Gould began by improvising something Straussian—we thought he was simply warming up, but no, he continued to play like that throughout the actual recordings, as though Strauss's notes were just a pretext that allowed him to improvise freely. Unlike most renowned pianists, he avoided much music of the 19th century, concentrating instead on that of the Renaissance, Baroque, and early 20th century. Glenn Herbert Gould[fn 1][fn 2] (/ɡuːld/; 25 September 1932 – 4 October 1982) was a Canadian classical pianist. In 1983, Gould was posthumously inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame. [120] In 1983, he was honoured posthumously, being inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame for his 1955 recording (released in 1956) of the Goldberg Variations.[121]. He hated being touched, and in later life limited personal contact, relying on the telephone and letters for communication. Bach's WTC on a Wittmayer harpsichord. [88] He recorded most of Bach's other keyboard works, including both books of The Well-Tempered Clavier and the Partitas, French Suites, English Suites, Inventions and Sinfonias, keyboard concertos, and a number of toccatas (which interested him least, being less polyphonic). Some viewed his idea favorably, others less so. When asked in a radio interview whether he did not find himself wanting to play Chopin, he replied: "No, I don't. Gould, therefore, prefers an ahistorical, or at least pre-Renaissance, view of art, minimizing the identity of the artist and the attendant historical context in evaluating the artwork: "What gives us the right to assume that in the work of art we must receive a direct communication with the historical attitudes of another period? [fn 7] He claimed to have almost never practised on the piano itself, preferring to study repertoire by reading,[fn 8] another technique he had learned from Guerrero. But we persevered nonetheless. Yet it is not the work that has changed but its relation within the accepted narrative of music history. Nevertheless, after the controversy over Gould's performance, it was decided (by Schuyler Chapin, then director of the company) to shelve any plans for a commercial release. No performer after him can avoid the example he sets ... Now, everyone must perform through him: he can be emulated or rejected, but he cannot be ignored. [77] Weighing this statement against Gould's highly individualistic lifestyle and artistic vision leads to an apparent contradiction. [65] Cornelia Foss has said that Gould took a lot of antidepressants, which she blamed for his deteriorating mental state. [119], The Grammys are awarded annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. 30, selections from Bach's The Art of Fugue, and Paul Hindemith's Piano Sonata No. [46] He had to sit exactly fourteen inches above the floor, and would play concerts only while sitting on the old chair his father had made. Then why, to repeat the question, am I conducting it? Gould revered J.S. Their affair lasted until 1972, when she returned to her husband. [93] He recorded a number of Gibbons's keyboard works, and called him his favourite composer,[94][95] despite his better-known admiration for the technical mastery of Bach. Glenn Gould gave his last public concert at the Wilshire Ebell Theater in L.A. 56 years ago. His String Quartet (Op. I … Gould is a popular subject of biography and even critical analysis. This is a broadcast recording (recorded at Konzertsaal der Berlin Hochschule für Musik on 26th May 1957), but the sound quality is far better than the notorious Brahms concerto recording with Bernstein, although occasional coughs and sneezing - plus creaking noise from Glenn Gould's chair - are audible. Released: 1969. Nevertheless, the novelty of Gould's ideas needed to be shared carefully with the orchestra, and later with the public. Gould was shocked by this, and complained of aching, lack of coordination, and fatigue because of the incident. Gould had a pronounced aversion to what he termed "hedonistic" approaches to piano repertoire, performance, and music generally. More Details. The Glenn Gould Foundation was established in Toronto in 1983 to honour Gould and to keep alive his memory and life's work. On a visit to Steinway Hall in New York City in 1959, Gould was greeted by the chief piano technician at the time, William Hupfer, with a slap on the back. [59] Specifically he believed that "someone was spying on him", according to Foss's son. But the age old question still remains: "In a concerto, who is the boss; the soloist or the conductor?" He often hummed or sang while he played, and his audio engineers were not always successful in excluding his voice from recordings. The live radio broadcast was subsequently released on CD, Bernstein's disclaimer included. Gould asks why the epoch in which a work is received influences its reception as "art", postulating a sonata of his own composition that sounds so like one of Haydn's that it is received as such. The disc of recordings was placed on the spacecraft Voyager 1. Gould recorded several Handel suites and a few pieces from J.S. The foundation's mission "is to extend awareness of the legacy of Glenn Gould as an extraordinary musician, communicator, and Canadian, and to advance his visionary and innovative ideas into the future", and its prime activity is the awarding, triennially, of the Glenn Gould Prize to "an individual who has earned international recognition as the result of a highly exceptional contribution to music and its communication, through the use of any communications technologies. The temperature of the recording studio had to be precisely regulated. I play it in a weak moment – maybe once a year or twice a year for myself. [39] On 10 April 1964, Gould gave his last public performance, playing in Los Angeles, at the Wilshire Ebell Theater. 3. The success of Gould's collaborations was to a degree dependent upon his collaborators' receptiveness to his sometimes unconventional readings of the music. [26], The piano, Gould said, "is not an instrument for which I have any great love as such ... [but] I have played it all my life, and it is the best vehicle I have to express my ideas." [101] There is little critical commentary on Gould's compositions for the simple reason that there are few of them; he never succeeded beyond Opus 1, and left a number of works unfinished. His maternal grandfather was a cousin of the Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg. [78], The issue of "authenticity" in relation to an approach like Gould's has been a topic of great debate, although diminished by the end of the 20th century. Gould's writing style was highly articulate, but sometimes florid, indulgent, and rhetorical. [97] Schwarzkopf believed in "total fidelity" to the score, but she also objected to the temperature, which was to Gould's liking: The studio was incredibly overheated, which may be good for a pianist but not for a singer: a dry throat is the end as far as singing is concerned. Gould's experience of driving across northern Ontario while listening to Top 40 radio in 1967 provided the inspiration for one of his most unusual radio pieces, The Search for Petula Clark, a witty and eloquent dissertation on the recordings of the renowned British pop singer, who was then at the peak of her international success. [fn 11] Gould performed fewer than 200 concerts over the course of his career, of which fewer than 40 were outside Canada. ... Not agree, the cadenza is a rather dodecaphonic remake of the concert main theme, that in facts remains constantly perceivable along the piece. The life’s work of a Glenn Gould Prize Laureate embodies this connection. ", to which the audience laughed. When Gould was in Los Angeles in 1956, he met Cornelia Foss, an art instructor, and her husband Lukas, a conductor. Even Gould's performance was not guaranteed, as he regularly canceled at the last minute. See all 4 formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Each Glenn Gould Prize Laureate also chooses an outstanding young artist to receive The City of Toronto Glenn Gould Protégé Prize.. He was once arrested, having possibly been mistaken for a vagrant, while sitting on a park bench in Sarasota, Florida, dressed in his standard all-climate attire of coats, hat and mittens. His April 1962 performance of Brahms’ first piano concerto, with the New York Philharmonic and Leonard Bernstein conducting, gave rise to an extraordinary situation in which Mr. Bernstein disagreed with Gould’s interpretation so vehemently that he felt it necessary to warn the audience beforehand. The performance is still regularly referred to by critics[11] and features in retrospectives of Gould's career.